What toxin does Streptococcus release?

What toxin does Streptococcus release?

What toxin does Streptococcus release?

Erythrogenic toxins, also referred to as streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins, are secreted by strains of the bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes. SpeA and speC are superantigens, which induce inflammation by nonspecifically activating T cells and stimulating the production of inflammatory cytokines.

What disease is caused by Erythrogenic toxin?

Erythrogenic toxins produced by Streptococcus pyogenes are involved in a streptococcal form of toxic shock syndrome with a quite similar presentation. In most cases however, a cutaneous or soft tissue infection is at the origin. Necrotizing fasciitis complicating varicella is a classic cause in children.

Which toxin is produced by Streptococcus pyogenes?

Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus, GAS) is a ubiquitous and important human bacterial pathogen. This organism possesses several virulence factors to establish infection. One of these, the streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SpeB), is the predominant secreted cysteine protease of GAS.

How does Streptococcus pyogenes infect humans?

pyogenes is an exclusively human pathogen (5, 7). INFECTIOUS DOSE: Unknown. MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Transmission via respiratory droplets, hand contact with nasal discharge and skin contact with impetigo lesions are the most important modes of transmission (5, 9, 13).

Do all group A streptococci produce Erythrogenic toxin?

Erythrogenic toxin A and erythrogenic toxin B were produced by 68.7% and 58.3% of the strains containing either gene. For all group A streptococci, irrespective of clinical association, the erythrogenic toxin B gene was detected in all the isolates tested.

What is a pyrogenic toxin?

The family of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins (SPEs) includes SPEs A, B, C, and F. These toxins are responsible for the rash of scarlet fever. Other pathogenic effects caused by these substances include pyrogenicity, cytotoxicity, and enhancement of susceptibility to endotoxin.

What toxins have been implicated in staphylococcal diseases?

Amongst the more common toxins secreted by S. aureus are hemolysin, leukotoxin, exfoliative toxin, enterotoxin, and toxic-shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). Aside from toxins, staphylococcal virulence factors also include enzymes and surface proteins.

How do bacteria produce toxins?

Bacteria generate toxins which can be classified as either exotoxins or endotoxins. Exotoxins are generated and actively secreted; endotoxins remain part of the bacteria. Usually, an endotoxin is part of the bacterial outer membrane, and it is not released until the bacterium is killed by the immune system.