What causes secondary spinal cord injury?

What causes secondary spinal cord injury?

What causes secondary spinal cord injury?

Vascular injury to the spinal cord caused by arterial disruption, arterial thrombosis, or hypoperfusion due to shock are the major causes of secondary spinal cord injury. Anoxic or hypoxic effects compound the extent of spinal cord injury.

What secondary clinical problems may occur from a spinal cord injury?

In this paper, we review data about common secondary long-term complications after SCI, including respiratory complications, cardiovascular complications, urinary and bowel complications, spasticity, pain syndromes, pressure ulcers, osteoporosis and bone fractures.

When does secondary spinal cord injury occur?

Overview of Secondary Mechanisms of Spinal Cord Injury. Secondary injury begins within minutes following the initial primary injury and continues for weeks or months causing progressive damage of spinal cord tissue surrounding the lesion site (7).

What is secondary spinal injury?

Secondary injury occurs over hours to days as a result of a complex inflammatory process, vascular changes and intracellular calcium changes leading to oedema and ischemia of the spinal cord. Irreversible damage occurs to nerve cells leading to permanent disability.

What is primary and secondary spinal cord injury?

The primary injury is caused by the initial traumatic event, and the secondary injury is created by a series of biological and functional changes. Your doctor may refer to the later changes as the secondary injury cascade.

What is the difference between a primary brain injury and a secondary brain injury?

Whereas primary brain injury (focal and diffuse) results from mechanical injury at the time of the trauma, secondary brain injury is caused by the physiologic responses to the initial injury.

What are the mechanisms of injury to the spinal cord?

Methods: The essential mechanisms of spinal injuries are considered: (1) axial deformation with (a) compression (centric or eccentric), most often eccentric, including compression in flexion or extension; (b) spinal elongation with distraction as centric elongation, but frequently axial eccentric elongation and a …

How does a primary brain injury turns into a secondary brain injury?

Secondary injury is an indirect result of the injury. It results from processes initiated by the trauma. It occurs in the hours and days following the primary injury and plays a large role in the brain damage and death that results from TBI.

What is a secondary injury process?

Secondary injury is a term applied to the destructive and self-propagating biological changes in cells and tissues that lead to their dysfunction or death over hours to weeks after the initial insult (the “primary injury”). In most contexts, the initial injury is usually mechanical.

What is the most severe injury to the spinal cord?

Cervical spinal cord injuries affect the head and neck region above the shoulders. It is the most severe level of spinal cord injury.

What are the stages of spinal shock?

Phases of spinal shock

Phase Time Physical exam finding
1 0–1d Areflexia/Hyporeflexia
2 1–3d Initial reflex return
3 1–4w Hyperreflexia (initial)
4 1–12m Hyperreflexia, Spasticity

What happens with reflexes in spinal shock?

After a spinal shock, the spinal cord enters either hyporeflexia – a significant reduction in reflexes – or areflexia – the temporary loss of reflexes. Because reflexes help to prevent harm, their temporary loss can be dangerous.

Can someone with spinal cord injury walk again?

Depending on the severity of a spinal cord injury, patients may find themselves unable to walk. In situations like these, patients work with a variety of medical professionals to regain the ability to walk, so they can return to as much normal bodily function as possible.

What is the difference between primary initial and secondary brain injury?

What is the difference between primary and secondary brain injury?

What is one of the early complications of spinal cord injury?

Circulatory control. A spinal cord injury may cause circulatory problems ranging from low blood pressure when you rise (orthostatic hypotension) to swelling of your extremities. These circulation changes may also increase your risk of developing blood clots, such as deep vein thrombosis or a pulmonary embolus.

What are secondary complications?

Secondary conditions refer to a range of complications that can occur as a result of paralysis. They include health and medical issues like bowel, bladder, sexual function, and some can be life-threatening if not managed correctly.

What is the primary and secondary that causes damage?

In traumatic brain injury (TBI), primary brain injury occurs during the initial insult, and results from displacement of the physical structures of the brain. Secondary brain injury occurs gradually and may involve an array of cellular processes.

What are secondary conditions related to spinal cord injuries?

Pain– Some patients experience chronic pain as a result of a spinal cord injury. Depression– Depression is often a secondary condition for many illnesses that result in a permanent disability. This is not an exhaustive list of the secondary conditions that may develop as a result of a spinal cord injury.

What happens to your body after a spinal cord injury?

Know, understand, and prevent secondary complications after Spinal Cord Injury. Over the years, the spinalcord.com team has received an overwhelming response of individuals emailing and calling in to learn about various secondary complications that happens when a person sustains a spinal cord injury (SCI).

What are the secondary complications of a sci?

Over the years, the spinalcord.com team has received an overwhelming response of individuals emailing and calling in to learn about various secondary complications that happens when a person sustains a spinal cord injury (SCI). Whether an individual is newly injured or has been injured for years, secondary complications can arise at any point.

When does the secondary injury cascade start and end?

The secondary injury cascade is a series of changes that begin within just a few hours after the SCI and may continue months past the initial injury. Glial scars have protective benefits for your spinal cord, but they also have adverse effects. Glial scars prevent nerve cells and pathways from re-growing.

Is it possible for the spinal cord to heal?

The central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) is unable to heal like other areas of the body. Typically when you get injured, the body will heal itself within a few days. This is because most cells in the body are constantly regenerating. Nerve cells (neurons) in the central nervous system are unable to regenerate.

What are the symptoms of spinal cord damage?

Symptoms of spinal cord injury include: loss of movement; loss of sensation (sense of touch, heat or cold); loss of bowel or bladder control; exaggerated reflexes or spasms; changes in sexual function or sensitivity; pain or stinging due to nerve damage; and difficulty breathing, coughing, or clearing the throat.

What is spinal cord contusion?

A spinal contusion of the spinal cord occurs when the cord is bruised through trauma, which can lead to inflammation and bleeding from blood vessels near the injury site. Spinal compression occurs when pressure is exerted onto the spinal cord by a nearby source,…

What is the spinal cord Association?

The Spinal Cord Injury Association of Illinois (a chapter of the United Spinal Association) is a 501(c)3 non-profit organization providing information and support resources for people paralyzed by trauma and medical conditions, family members, and health care and related professionals that serve the SCI community.