When does extravasation occur?

When does extravasation occur?

When does extravasation occur?

More extravasations occur at night and often go unnoticed [10]; however, data from the National Extravasation Information Service green card reporting database shows that 44% of extravasations occur between the hours of 2 pm and 10 pm, 10% occur between 10 pm and 6 am, and 38% occur between 6 am and 2 pm [11].

What is an extravasation reaction?

Extravasation injury is a well-known adverse event that occurs when offending drugs escape from the veins or intravenous catheters into subcutaneous tissues.

How can we reduce extravasation?

Apply either ice packs or warm compresses to the affected area, depending on the type of vesicant. For most extravasations, you’ll apply ice for 20 minutes four to six times a day for 24 to 48 hours. However, treat extravasations from Vinca alkaloids, epipodophyllotoxins, and vasoconstricting drugs with heat.

What is blood extravasation?

(ek-STRA-vuh-SAY-shun) The leakage of blood, lymph, or other fluid, such as an anticancer drug, from a blood vessel or tube into the tissue around it. It is also used to describe the movement of cells out of a blood vessel into tissue during inflammation or metastasis (the spread of cancer).

How can we stop extravasation?

Ensure that the drug has been properly diluted before injection or infusion. Dilution reduces the amount of vesicant that would reach subcutaneous tissue if extravasation occurs. Dilution also helps you to detect edema or complaints of pain before the entire dose has been administered.

How does extravasation happen?

An extravasation occurs when there is accidental infiltration of a vesicant or chemotherapeutic drug into the surrounding IV site. Vesicants can cause tissue destruction and / or blistering. Irritants can result in pain at the IV site and along the vein and may or may not cause inflammation.

What is in an extravasation kit?

Most extravasation kits contain disposable syringes and cannulas, cold-hot packs, gauze pads, adhesive plaster, sterile and protective gloves, and medications to treat extravasation (e.g., hyaluronidase, dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO] 99%, dexrazoxane).

How is extravasation treated?

If extravasation occurs, the injection should be stopped immediately and the IV tubing disconnected. Avoid applying pressure to the site, and do not flush the line. Leave the original catheter in place, and attempt to aspirate as much of the infiltrated drug as possible.

Where does extravasation occur?

What is a flare reaction?

One is a local allergic reaction, also called a flare reaction, and is caused by drugs that are irritants. The other type of reaction is more severe and is caused by extravasation, which is the leakage of a small amount of chemotherapy from the blood vessel at the site of injection.

What drugs can cause extravasation?

Examples of medications that can cause extravasation include: cytotoxic medications such as certain drugs used in chemotherapy; dyopamine; phenytoin (Dilantin); norepinephrine (Levophed) and phenylephrine (Neo-Synephrine).

How do you treat a flare reaction?

Plastic surgery may be needed if there is severe tissue damage or a delay in treatment. Hot or cold packs may be used. The treatment depends on which medication caused the reaction. Sensitivity or flare reactions are treated with ice or heat, depending on the drug causing the reaction.

How long does Tumor flare last?

It is usually noted by 48 hours and peaks at 7 to 10 days. Far from being a theoretical risk in the patient with widespread metastatic disease, tumor flare frequently results in exacerbation of cancer-related bone pain and can cause paraplegia resulting from spinal cord compression.

What is flare reaction?

In immune system disorder: Type I allergic reactions. Called a wheal-and-flare reaction, it includes swelling, produced by the release of serum into the tissues (wheal), and redness of the skin, resulting from the dilation of blood vessels (flare).