What is the first step in the process to isolate and identify bacterial infections?

What is the first step in the process to isolate and identify bacterial infections?

What is the first step in the process to isolate and identify bacterial infections?

Following isolation, one of the first steps in identifying a bacterial isolate is the Gram stain, which allows for the determination of the Gram reaction, morphology, and arrangement of the organism.

When obtaining a throat swab for group A strep screening What is the proper procedure for performing the swab?

6. Carefully INSERT the swab into the oropharynx and ROTATE the swab gently but firmly around both tonsils (if present) and the pharynx. If bacterial culture focus on areas that are red, patchy white or contain exudate. Avoid the teeth, gums, tongue and cheeks to prevent contamination.

Which of the following components could be found in a patients urine specimen when the patient has a urinary tract infection?

Leukocyte esterase (an enzyme found in certain white blood cells) in the urine can be detected by dipstick. Leukocyte esterase is a sign of inflammation, which is most commonly caused by a urinary tract infection.

What is the expected pH range of a freshly voided urine specimen?

Although freshly voided urine is usually acidic (around pH 6), the normal range is between 4.8 and 7.5. The pH will vary with the time of day and diet. Twenty-four-hour specimens are less acidic than fresh specimens and may become alkaline after standing due to bacterial decomposition of urea to ammonia.

What are the four types of infection?

This article will focus on the most common and deadly types of infection: bacterial, viral, fungal, and prion.

How is a bacterial infection diagnosed?

Diagnosis of Bacterial and Viral Infections But your doctor may be able to determine the cause by listening to your medical history and doing a physical exam. If necessary, they also can order a blood or urine test to help confirm a diagnosis, or a “culture test” of tissue to identify bacteria or viruses.

What does the C and T stand for on a strep test?

SOME POSITIVE RESULTS MAY BE SEEN EARLIER. INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS. Positive Result: The appearance of any pink-to-red line next to the letter “T” in the Result Window, along with a blue Control Line next to the letter “C”, means that the test is positive for Group A Streptococcus.

What urine specimen has the highest concentration of hCG?

II. Specimen: The urine specimen must be collected in a clean, dry container. Specimens collected at any time are acceptable, however, the first morning urine generally contains the highest concentration of hCG.

What are some examples of abnormal findings in a urinalysis?

Things the dipstick test can check for include:

  • Acidity, or pH. If the acid is abnormal, you could have kidney stones, a urinary tract infection (UTI), or another condition.
  • Protein. This can be a sign your kidneys aren’t working right.
  • Glucose.
  • White blood cells.
  • Nitrites.
  • Bilirubin.
  • Blood in your urine.

Which of the following imparts an abnormal color to urine?

A Urine Color, Odor, and Turbidity The cause of the coloration is reported to be urochrome, which is a combination of urobilin and urobilinogen with a peptide (Anonymous, 1965). The intensity of the color usually varies with urine concentration; thus, concentrated urine is dark yellow, and dilute urine is pale yellow.

What is the normal reaction of urine when freshly voided?

Freshly voided urine is normally pale yellow. Normal urine may range in color from nearly colorless if very dilute to dark orange if very concentrated. Several drugs discolor the urine, although some color changes depend on the pH of the urine (Table 5-8).

What is fatal infection?

Fatal viral infections, although rare, are particularly ominous because of the lack of effective treatments. Two deadly viral infections that have emerged in recent years include severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and influenza A (H5N1), also known as avian influenza or bird flu.

What are the four most common sources of infection?


  • Bacteria. These one-cell organisms are responsible for illnesses such as strep throat, urinary tract infections and tuberculosis.
  • Viruses. Even smaller than bacteria, viruses cause a multitude of diseases ranging from the common cold to AIDS.
  • Fungi.
  • Parasites.

What are examples of bacterial infections?

Some examples of bacterial infections include:

  • strep throat.
  • bacterial urinary tract infections (UTIs), often caused by coliform bacteria.
  • bacterial food poisoning, often caused by E.
  • bacterial cellulitis, such as due to Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
  • bacterial vaginosis.
  • gonorrhea.
  • chlamydia.
  • syphilis.

How do strep tests work?

Your health care provider will use a tongue depressor to hold down your tongue. He or she will use a special swab to take a sample from the back of your throat and tonsils. The sample may be used to do a rapid strep test in the provider’s office. Sometimes the sample is sent to a lab.

Why we should be careful not to touch the swab to the lips tongue or uvula?

Rationale: Touching the lips, teeth, tongue, cheeks, or uvula with the swab may cause contamination with organisms from the oral cavity. Gently but quickly swab the tonsillar area from side to side, contacting any inflamed or purulent sites.

Why is hCG not being detected in urine?

In addition to testing too early, the following factors can cause a false negative with a urine HCG test: drinking lots of water so that the urine is very diluted. getting too much or too little urine on the test strip. testing with urine late in the day when it may be weaker.

Is hCG higher in blood than urine?

Generally, when used correctly, the home test should produce the same result as the urine hCG test done by your healthcare practitioner. Blood testing for hCG is more sensitive than urine hCG testing, so sometimes a blood test will indicate pregnancy when the urine test is negative.