What are the complications of PEM?

What are the complications of PEM?

What are the complications of PEM?

Protein-energy malnutrition is associated with an increased risk of liver cirrhosis complications, including ascites, variceal bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy, and hepatorenal syndrome.

What causes death in PEM?

Causes of death of children with severe PEM include dehydration, infection, hypothermia, cardiac failure, and severe anemia.

Who is at risk for PEM?

There are several factors due to protein energy malnutrition deficiency such as status of PEM was severe, PEM due to several factors behind it such as socioeconomic status low income, low education, diarrhoea, age and gender.

What is the most severe form of PEM?

Marasmic kwashiorkor (marked protein deficiency and marked calorie insufficiency signs present, sometimes referred to as the most severe form of malnutrition)

What are the signs and symptoms of PEM?

Clinical signs and symptoms of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) include the following:

  • Poor weight gain.
  • Slowing of linear growth.
  • Behavioral changes – Irritability, apathy, decreased social responsiveness, anxiety, and attention deficits.

Can malnourishment lead to death?

The Global Nutrition Report 2020, released on Tuesday, revealed that the various forms of malnutrition — underweight, undernourished, overweight, and obese — have become the leading causes of death and illness worldwide.

What are the treatment of PEM?

In both children and adults, the first step in the treatment of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is to correct fluid and electrolyte abnormalities and to treat any infections. The most common electrolyte abnormalities are hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and hypomagnesemia.

What is the main reason that the first 1000 days is a critical window for nutrition interventions?

The first 1000 days are a window of opportunity because this is when improvements in nutrition can have the greatest impact in populations with poor nutrition.

What can be done to prevent PEM?

Mild or moderate PEM are best judged by anthropometry; regular weighing, for monitoring growth, may be a useful control strategy. Because infections play such an important role in PEM, three practical approaches-immunization, deworming of children, and oral rehydration therapy for diarrhea–are discussed.

How important are the first 1000 days of life?

A baby’s experiences in their first 1,000 days of life — from conception to age 2 — can have a lifelong effect on their health and wellbeing. Making sure your child has what they need in their early years will help set them up for a healthy life.

Do the first 1000 days determine the rest of your life?

Your early experiences shape the structure of your developing organs. The basis of lifelong health, wellbeing and productivity is established during the first 1 000 days of our lives.