What is the pathophysiology of stomach cancer?

What is the pathophysiology of stomach cancer?

What is the pathophysiology of stomach cancer?

Gastric cancer consists of two pathological variants, intestinal and diffuse. The intestinal-type is the end-result of an inflammatory process that progresses from chronic gastritis to atrophic gastritis and finally to intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia.

What are the main causes of stomach cancer?

Factors that increase the risk of stomach cancer include:

  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease.
  • Obesity.
  • A diet high in salty and smoked foods.
  • A diet low in fruits and vegetables.
  • Family history of stomach cancer.
  • Infection with Helicobacter pylori.
  • Long-term stomach inflammation (gastritis)
  • Smoking.

What are the mechanisms of spread of gastric carcinoma?

Cancer of the stomach can spread directly, via lymphatics, or hematogenously. Features of spread include the following: Direct extension into the omenta, pancreas, diaphragm, transverse colon or mesocolon, and duodenum is common.

What are the symptoms of stomach cancer in a woman?

When stomach cancer does cause signs and symptoms, they can include:

  • Poor appetite.
  • Weight loss (without trying)
  • Abdominal (belly) pain.
  • Vague discomfort in the abdomen, usually above the navel.
  • Feeling full after eating only a small meal.
  • Heartburn or indigestion.
  • Nausea.
  • Vomiting, with or without blood.

Is lots of gas a sign of cancer?

Gas and bloating: Excessive gas and bloating can be a sign of colon cancer.

What is the function of the cardia in the stomach?

The part of the stomach that is closest to the esophagus. Food and liquids pass through the cardia to enter the stomach from the esophagus. A valve near the cardia helps keep stomach contents from backing up into the esophagus.

What are the three major macroscopic growth patterns of gastric carcinoma?

Based on Borrmann’s classification, the gross appearance of advanced gastric carcinomas can be divided into type I for polypoid growth, type II for fungating growth, type III for ulcerating growth, and type IV for diffusely infiltrating growth which is also referred to as linitisplastica in signet ring cell carcinoma …

What is the root cause of stomach cancer?

Most of the gene changes that lead to stomach cancer occur after birth. Some of these acquired mutations might be caused by risk factors such as H pylori infection or tobacco use. But other gene changes may just be random events that sometimes happen inside cells, without having an outside cause.

What is the pathophysiology of cancer?

Cancer Pathophysiology. Cancer describes a group of more than 150 disease processes characterized by uncontrolled growth and spread of cells. Cancer is not a singular, specific disease but a group of variable tissue responses that result in uncontrolled cell growth (McCance & Roberts, 1998; Fraumeni, 1982).

What is gastric cardia mean?

The gastric cardia is generally defined as the area of mucosa located distal to the anatomic gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) and proximal to the oxyntic mucosa of the gastric body. It is an area of the stomach that raises many controversies about its native glandular components.

What percentage of stomach tumors are benign?

Benign tumors of stomach and duodenum are not common and constitute only 5–10% of all stomach tumors, and 10–20% of all duodenal tumors. Though these lesions are benign, some of them can become malignant.

What is the pathophysiology of gastric colon cancer?

The pathophysiology of gastric cancer. The incidence of gastric cancer rarely produced directly from the normal gastric mucosa epithelium, and most have occurred in the gastric epithelial abnormality or disease based on the produce.

How is the etiology of stomach cancer determined?

Etiology of stomach cancer is multifactorial, but Helicobacter pylori plays a significant role. Symptoms include early satiety, obstruction, and bleeding but tend to occur late in the disease. Diagnosis is by endoscopy, followed by CT and endoscopic ultrasonography for staging.

Where does gastric cancer usually occur in the body?

The incidence of gastric cancer rarely produced directly from the normal gastric mucosa epithelium, and most have occurred in the gastric epithelial abnormality or disease based on the produce.

How are precancerous diseases related to gastric cancer?

Therefore, these abnormal changes in the gastric epithelium or disease syndrome known as gastric cancer, precancerous changes and gastric diseases. The former refers to the gastric mucosa on the The pathological changes of skin, the latter refers to a number of clinical diseases easily into gastric cancer.

What are the stages of gastric cancer?

The earliest stage stomach cancers are called stage 0 (carcinoma in situ), and then range from stages I (1) through IV (4). As a rule, the lower the number, the less the cancer has spread. A higher number, such as stage IV, means cancer has spread more. Although each person’s cancer experience is unique,…

What causes cancer in the stomach?

There are no known exact causes of stomach cancer. Things that increase the risk of gastric cancer include peptic ulcers caused by H. pylori bacteria, inflammation of the stomach, smoking, a family history of stomach cancer, and a lack of exercise, a poor diet and obesity.

What are the symptoms of gastric cancer?

Symptoms Symptoms. Signs and symptoms of gastric cancer may include indigestion, stomach discomfort, bloating, mild nausea, loss of appetite, and heartburn. In more advanced stages of gastric cancer signs and symptoms may include bloody stool, vomiting, weight loss, stomach pain, jaundice, ascites (fluid in the abdomen), and trouble swallowing.

How can you get stomach cancer?

Studies show that people who are infected with H. pylori are also up to 8 times more likely to get a certain kind of stomach, or gastric, cancer. But this bacterium is only one possible cause of stomach cancer. Smoking, a diet low in fruits and veggies, and a history of stomach surgeries can raise your risk.