What causes cardiac fibrosis?

What causes cardiac fibrosis?

What causes cardiac fibrosis?

Coronary heart disease, aortic stenosis and hypertension are the most frequent causes of myocardial fibrosis (13). Aortic stenosis and hypertension result in pressure overload of the left ventricle where the increased wall stress induces hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis (2–4).

How is myocardial fibrosis treated?

Unlike ACE inhibitors and ARBs, aldosterone antagonists directly block aldosterone, which may be a more effective way of reducing its profibrotic effects. Spironolactone and eplerenone have been shown to reduce myocardial fibrosis in animals and humans, though results in humans are mixed.

Is myocardial fibrosis genetic?

Myocardial fibrosis is a common postmortem finding among young individuals with sudden cardiac death. Because there is no known single cause, we tested the hypothesis that some cases of myocardial fibrosis in the absence of identifiable causes (primary myocardial fibrosis [PMF]) are associated with genetic variants.

Is myocardial fibrosis reversible?

In the absence of an effective regenerative approach, fibrosis may only be reversible if it is confined to the interstitium, and it is not associated with high levels of crosslinked ECM.

How long can you live with myocardial fibrosis?

Myocardial Fibrosis Predicts 10-Year Survival in Patients Undergoing Aortic Valve Replacement.

How serious is myocardial fibrosis?

Myocardial fibrosis is an important part of cardiac remodeling that leads to heart failure and death. Myocardial fibrosis results from increased myofibroblast activity and excessive extracellular matrix deposition. Various cells and molecules are involved in this process, providing targets for potential drug therapies.

Can you reverse cardiac fibrosis?

Recent studies in several rodent models of cardiac fibrosis have documented reversal of fibrosis by treatment with relaxin peptide or virally mediated relaxin gene delivery. In mice with surgically induced transmural myocardial infarction, relaxin therapy inhibited scar density.

Why is cardiac fibrosis bad?

Cardiac fibrosis is a process of pathological extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, leading to abnormalities in matrix composition and quality, as well as an impaired heart muscle function [4]. Initially, ECM deposition is a protective mechanism and can be beneficial for wound healing and tissue regeneration.

How can you prevent myocardial fibrosis?

The approaches that inhibit myofibroblast formation have been demonstrated to prevent cardiac fibrosis, including systemic delivery of antifibrotic drugs, localized delivery of biomaterials, localized delivery of biomaterials and antifibrotic drugs, and localized delivery of cells using biomaterials.

What kind of disease is myocardial fibrosis?

Myocardial fibrosis is a common final pathway in chronic myocardial disease and is the structural correlate of heart failure.

How does cardiac fibrosis lead to heart failure?

Nearly all etiologies of heart disease involve pathological myocardial remodeling characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins by cardiac fibroblasts (CFs), which reduces tissue compliance and accelerates the progression to heart failure.

What causes fibrotic scars on the heart muscle?

Fibrotic scars of the cardiac muscle most commonly occur after myocardial infarction; however, there are various other conditions promoting cardiac fibrosis such as hypertensive heart disease, diabetic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy [ 4, 5 ].

How is biomedical research related to myocardial fibrosis?

Focusing on myocardial fibrosis may potentially improve patient care through the targeted diagnosis and treatment of emerging fibrotic pathways.

What are the symptoms of cardiac fibrosis?

This results in a case of abnormal scarring, or fibrosis. This process hardens the heart, thus making it inflexible. This condition usually affects the ventricles, which are the heart’s pumping chambers. Its symptoms include chest pain, some abdominal swelling, nausea and fatigue.

What causes sudden cardiac death?

Most sudden cardiac deaths are caused by abnormal heart rhythms called arrhythmias. The most common life-threatening arrhythmia is ventricular fibrillation, which is an erratic, disorganized firing of impulses from the ventricles (the heart’s lower chambers).

What is the prognosis of cardiac amyloidosis?

Prognosis varies with the type of amyloidosis and the affected organ system. Prognosis for untreated AL cardiac amyloidosis is poor, with a median survival of six months. More specifically, AL amyloidosis can be classified as stage I, II or III based on cardiac biomarkers like Nt-proBNP and cardiac troponin.

What causes fibrosis in heart?

Cardiac fibrosis results from the thickening of cardiac muscles or heart valves. Fibrosis in the heart is caused by the abnormal increase in fibroblast. The new cardiac muscles generated by such fibrosis is stiffer than and not as stretchable as normal cardiac muscles.